A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) can be an agreement between two countries regarding promotion and safety of investments made by investors from respective countries in each other’s territory. The great majority of IIAs are BITs. The category of treaties with investment procedures (TIPs) brings together various types of investment treaties that are not BITs.
3. treaties that only contain “construction” clauses such as the ones on assistance in the area of investment and/or for a mandate for future negotiations on investment issues. In addition to IIAs, there also exists an open-ended group of investment-related equipment (IRIs). It includes various binding and not-binding devices and includes, for example, model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute arbitration and negotiation rules, documents followed by international organisations, yet others. The mapping structure, shown in the “Select mapped treaty elements” tab, is a “table of contents” which includes all of the mapped treaty elements.
It corresponds to the typical structure of an IIA. The mapped treaty elements are components of an investment treaty mapped throughout the IIA Mapping Project. The real amount of mapped treaty elements exceeds 100. Each mapped treaty element has a couple of pre-defined mapping options to choose from.
The mapping options reveal the approach used the treaty to the relevant mapped treaty element. Mapping options can be of the “Yes/No” type or they can indicate the treaty approach more specifically (e.g. the type of fair and equitable treatment clause (FET) – qualified / unqualified / nothing etc.).
Each mapped treaty element includes the “Inconclusive” and “Not applicable” options. By default, the tab shows the highest-level headings within the mapping framework. Click on the relevant heading to expand individual sections, or click on the “Expand/Collapse All” button to see all mapped treaty elements. To create a summary of treaties that fulfill a certain option under a mapped treaty element, find the element in the mapping structure and select the desired option (e.g. Preamble / Mention of sustainable development / Yes). If several option is selected under the same mapped treaty component, the system displays treaties that match at least one of your options selected (i.e. results are mixed).
For example, a selection of “Kind of FET clause”: “FET unqualified” and “FET qualified” will create a list of mapped treaties that contain either kind of clause. If several option is selected under different mapped treaty elements, the system shows only those treaties that correspond to all of the variables/options selected. For example, an array of “Kind of FET clause”: “FET qualified” and “Type of MFN clause”: “Post-establishment” will generate a list of mapped treaties that fulfil both criteria at the same time.
- 699-660 Very Good, and 659-620 Good (A credit)
- Less assets will lead to more expenditure cutting
- Currency : USD/EURO
- Joint accounts can’t be opened
To apply an additional filter or filter systems, go through the “Filter by country, type, position, year” tab, broaden the relevant filter(s) and make a selection. If several option is selected under the same additional filter, the system displays treaties that match at least one of your options chosen (i.e. results are combined). For example, selecting “Argentina” and “Austria” in the “Country” filtration system will generate a summary of mapped treaties signed either by Argentina or by Austria.
If several option is chosen under different additional filters, the operational system shows only those treaties that correspond to every one of the filter systems/options selected. For example, selecting “BITs” in the “Kind of agreement” filter and “In force” in the “Status” filter will create a summary of mapped treaties that fulfil both criteria at exactly the same time.